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Nile River valley, central Egypt The valley of the Nile runs through the middle of Egypt, with large expanses of desert on either side.  The Nile enters the country from Sudan, then flows eastward before flowing north to Cairo, where it enters the Mediterranean Sea.  Egypt is basically broken into two areas:  the area north of Cairo is referred to as Lower Egypt, while the area south of Cairo is referred to as Upper Egypt.

relief map of Egypt
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About 99 percent of Egypt's citizens live in the valley of the Nile, which comprises only about three percent of Egypt's total land area.  However, it makes sense that the vast majority of people have settled here, as this is where most of the country's agriculture takes place.

Dakhla Oasis in Egypt's Western Desert The Western Desert, sometimes also called the Libyan Desert, is located west of the Nile, and is made up of low valleys and scarps known for limestone.  The Qattara Depression, a large area below sea level, is located in the north of this region.  Date palms grow in many of the oases located in the desert.

The Eastern Desert, located between the Nile and the Red Sea, is home to grasses, tamarisks, and mimosas, as well as desert nomads who keep sheep, goats, and camels.


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Relief Map of Egypt - Egypt Relief Map